Monday, August 1, 2016


Ruins of the fire looking north from Congress and Wabash
(click to enlarge)

News of the fire spread rapidly.  Stories were being distributed to all parts of the country from the earliest alarms.  After midnight on Monday morning, Chicago Mayor, Roswell Mason, telegraphed officials in other cities requesting help.1   Railroads, responsible for the phenomenal growth of the city, were also critical to its relief.  By mid-morning, fire fighters and equipment were received from Milwaukee.  A crew from Janesville, Wisconsin arrived by mid-afternoon.  More equipment and manpower followed quickly from Cincinnati, Detroit, Louisville, Pittsburgh, Bloomington and Springfield, Illinois, and other cities.  Springfield sent three carloads of provisions by Monday evening.  Another fifty carloads of food and clothing was received from various cities by late Tuesday afternoon.2

Monday afternoon, many hours before the fire was out, plans were being made for the relief of the victims.  The First Congregational Church, at Washington and Ann Streets, away from the fire in the West District, was appropriated as a temporary
West Side Rink in use as a Depot for supplies
(click to enlarge)
city hall and relief headquarters.   Volunteers toured the city seeking refugees to let them know that food and shelter was available.  Others helped organize storage and distribution of food and clothing shipped in from across the United States, and indeed, around the world.   (See picture of the West Side Rink used for storage and distribution of food and clothing in the aftermath of the Chicago fire.3)  Before the fire was out, plans were also being made by many business owners to set up temporary facilities in unburned sections of the city, and to replace buildings lost in the fire.4  

Large scale losses required a more permanent solution.   By October 15th, the Chicago Relief and Aid Society assumed responsibility for a long term response to the needs created by the fire, and continued assisting victims through 1873.  Over 100,000 people were left homeless.  Food and shelter were an immediate concern, but jobs and the health of the homeless were also issues.   Several committees were identified to address each cause.  Initially, churches and school buildings were used for shelter and distribution points for food and clothing before depots could be established.  Free rail transportation out of the city was arranged for roughly 20,000 of the homeless.  Others sought shelter with friends, and sometimes strangers, more fortunate to still have a home.  Tents were erected and barracks were built to house others.  Building materials were made available to qualified
Shanties built in Chicago after the fire
(click to enlarge)
families to fabricate small shanties where they could shelter from the approaching winter season.5  (See example on the right.)  Many jobs were lost because of the extent of the damage to businesses and factories.  The Aid Society matched men with jobs as rebuilding progressed.  Sewing machines were sold or given to women so they could support themselves and their families.  Fresh drinking water was not available for some time following the fire, and, to avoid a major outbreak of smallpox, thousands were vaccinated.6 

So, just how did Hannah Brown and the Brown family fare in the months and years after the fire?  Initially, the family likely escaped by going east to the shore of Lake Michigan to wait out the fire as did many other residents of the South Division.7   Some of the family may have left Chicago in the days following the fire.  The David Brown letter states that, “After the fire . . . she [Hannah] lived with her son, Patrick and his wife and family on a farm at Saybrook, Illinois, until her death.”8   However, while on a research trip to Dublin a few years ago, I talked to one of the professional genealogists at the National Library.  She stated that the Irish custom was for a widowed woman to live with a daughter as long as one was alive.  So, did Hannah stay in Chicago or go to Saybrook?

The family could have stayed with friends in the South Division.  Beyond the business district and the surrounding residential area, the South Division was largely untouched by the fire.  Likewise, most of the West District was unaffected.  Many Irish lived in these areas including people with surnames like Brown, Kelly, Hogan, Moloney, Walsh, and Toomey (spelled Twomey in the directory) that are also found in the area of Fanningstown in County Limerick.  There are other clues in City Directories after 1871 and the list of “Burial Permits”9 for Chicago.

As before the fire, again, it is helpful to look for the family as a whole rather than as individuals.  The 1872 Chicago City Directory
Enlarged section of map of Chicago where the Browns lived
(click to enlarge)
shows Thomas Roach, son-in-law of Hannah, in the West District on Ewing between Jefferson and Desplaines.  The directory also shows Michael Brown in the same location, perhaps at the same address at 124 Ewing.10   W. H. Gray, the husband of Mary Brown, eldest daughter of Hannah, is on 22nd Street.  All of these addresses are outside of the burn area.   The two youngest boys, James and Thomas, are shown at 116 Sherman, which, although was burned, could have had some “temporary” structure at the address.  Hannah could have been living with any of these family members and it appears that the family kept close ties throughout the adversity.  (See the above enlarged map of the area.11) 

Johanna Brown Roach, youngest daughter of Hannah and wife of Thomas, is shown in the “burial permits” index for 1872.  Her address is given as 361 S. Jefferson which is on the west side of the street at the intersection of Ewing.  This building was not burned.  (See location “A” on the map.)  Ellen Brown died in 1874 and is shown at 79 Ewing, within the burn zone.12  (See location “B” on the map.)  Ellen is living at the same address as Michael at the time of her death, but was living at the corner of Jackson and Franklin in 1871 along with the rest of the Brown family at the time of the fire.  Location “C” is the Sherman Street address where James and Thomas were living until 1874.

Because it would agree with Irish customs, I believe that Hannah was living with Johanna Brown Roach in the years immediately after the fire.  She probably remained there, caring for her
1880 Census-Saybrook, IL
(click to enlarge)
grandsons, until 1875 when the two small Roach boys were orphaned.  This is likely when she moved to Saybrook, Illinois to live with her oldest son, Patrick.  Hannah is definitely shown in the 1880 US Census with Patrick, his family, the two Roach children, and William Brown,13  another nephew of Patrick.  (See image of the 1880 census at the right.14)

Patrick’s wife, Anne, died in 1878.  (More about Patrick in future posts.)  Although there is no evidence, I agree with the David Brown letter in that, “. . . It seems that after the death of his wife, Patrick Brown, carried on with the help of his Mother [Hannah] until she too, was taken about the year 1884 or 1885.  After her death the home was broken up . . .”15   Patrick did break up his home about that time; however, there is one additional listing of Hannah in the Chicago City Directory.  In 1885 Hannah is living at 175 S. Jefferson, (the corner of Jefferson and Jackson), with her oldest daughter, Mary Gray and Mary’s son Lyman.16   Mary Gray and her son are also listed in the 1886 city directory.  Mary Gray died in Chicago in 1886; Lyman died in 1889.  Both are buried in Mt. Olivet Cemetery in Chicago. 

Hannah is not listed in the 1886 Chicago City Directory.  I have not located a death or burial record for her.  I also checked several cemeteries in the Chicago area and have not found her in any of them.  So, like David Brown, I do not know Hannah’s date of death,
Top of page 3 of the David Brown letter (click to enlarge)
nor, do I know her place of death.  The David Brown letter states that she, “. . . is buried in St. Mary’s cemetery in Bloomington, Illinois.”  (See image of page 3 of the David Brown letter above left.)  Several years ago, I checked with the county offices in McLean County, Illinois and there was no record of Hannah’s death.  I have also checked with St. Mary’s cemetery and have not found her there.17   It could be that Hannah died in Chicago and was taken to Bloomington for burial.  Hannah could also have moved from Chicago to Bloomington after the death of her daughter, Mary.  Several children of Patrick, grandchildren of Hannah, were still living in the area at the time and she may have lived with them.   Since David Brown obtained his information from grandchildren who would have known Hannah, and definitely, in some instances, lived with her, it seems likely they would have remembered some of the details of her life and death.  Because of this, I also believe Hannah’s final resting place is St. Mary’s Cemetery in Bloomington, with her son, Patrick, and Patrick’s wife, Anne.

I will continue to search for more specific information, and, will post it if anything is found.  However, I think it is now time to move on to other members of this immigrant family.  We will next look at Patrick, the oldest son of Hannah Kelly and Timothy Brown, who also arrived in Boston in January 1849.



Image - Sweeney, Thomas S., Ruins of the South Division, Harper’s Weekly, Harper & Bros., New York, N.Y., November 4, 1871, p. 1033.  Originals accessed July 23, 2016, Cincinnati Public Library, Cincinnati, Ohio.  The image shows the South Division looking north from Wabash and Congress, the very south east edge of the burned area.  The Brown residence, at Jackson and Franklin, would be in the fuzzy area directly behind the First Presbyterian Church in the foreground.

1.       Holden, Charles C. P., Rescue and Relief, The Great Chicago Fire and the Web of Memory, website of the Chicago Historical Society and Northwestern University.  Available online at: 

2.       Cromie, Robert, The Great Chicago Fire, McGraw-Hill, New York, New York, 1958, pp. 177-195

3.        Davis, R.R., The West Side Rink, Harper’s Weekly, Harper & Bros.. New York, N.Y., November 11, 1871, p. 1052, original accessed July 23, 2016, Cincinnati Public Library, Cincinnati, Ohio.

4.       Cromie, op. cit., “The last building burned early Tuesday morning.  The first load of lumber was delivered to the South side Tuesday afternoon.”  P. 197

5.       Cromie, op. cit., “By year’s end 6,000 small shanties . . .” [were built]. P. 206

Image – David, Theodore R., Improvised Shanties on the North Side, Harper’s Weekly, Harper & Bros., New York, N.Y., November 4, 1871, original accessed July 23, 2016, Cincinnati Public Library, Cincinnati, Ohio.

6.       Chicago Relief and Aid Society, Report of the Chicago Relief and Aid Society of Disbursement of Contributions for the Sufferers by the Chicago Fire, Riverside Press, Riverside, Cambridge, 1874.  The publication contains detail information about the relief efforts, including many tables and charts showing statistics of the relief provided.  It is available online at Hathi Trust Digital Library at:;view=1up;seq=7  

7.       Helmer, Bessie Bradwell, The Great Conglagration, The Great Chicago Fire and the Web of Memory, website of the Chicago Historical Society and Northwestern University.  Available online at: 

8.       Brown, David, Kankakee, IL, 11 May 1943, Letter to Esther ______, Columbus, OH, p.3.  The letter written in 1943 contains detailed information about the Brown family as known by the author at that time.  Saybrook, Illinois is located just a few miles east of Bloomington.  Bloomington supplied Chicago with firefighting equipment and provisions even before the fire was extinguished.   Rail transportation between the two cities was well established.

9.       Indexes to deaths in the city of Chicago during the years 1871-1933: showing name, address and date of death.  Commonly called “Burial Permits” since the indexes also identify people from outside the Chicago area.  The indexes are available on microfilm at Family Search.  I used film numbers 1295944 (Deaths, Bou-Cul 1871-1933), 1295946 (Deaths, Gol-Haw3 1871-1933), and 1295973 (Deaths, Rep-Sik 1871-1933) to research family deaths in Chicago.

10.   Recall that Michael Brown was living at 219 Jackson Street in 1871.  This is the same address for Hannah Brown and her family.  Also, recall that Ellen Brown, widow of John Brown, was also living at this address suggesting that Ellen was married to the brother of our Timothy Brown.  The 1870 census shows Ellen as a “Kelly” further suggesting she may, in fact, be a sister of our Hannah.   

11.   Map is a section of the J.H. Colton & Co. 1855 map of Chicago.  The burned area is shown in pink.

12.   Michael Brown moved from the time the 1872 city directory was published and 1874.  The 1874 city directory shows Michael Brown at 79 Ewing, the same address shown on Ellen’s “burial permit.”  Since 79 Ewing was in the burned area, perhaps they were living in one of the "shanties" provided by the Aid Society.  From a combination of census records and city directories, it appears that Ellen and Michael are related, likely mother and son.

13.   William Brown is the son of John Brown.  John Brown is a brother of Patrick being the third child of Hannah Kelly and Timothy Brown.

14.   Year: 1880; Census Place: Bell Flower, McLean, Illinois; Roll: 231; Family History Film: 1254231; Page: 626B; Enumeration District: 184; Image: 0136

15.   Brown, David, op. cit., p. 4.

16.   We will look at Mary Brown Gray in future posts.  Common names are difficult to affirm; however, this is the correct Mary Gray.  I have been able to follow her through from the 1850 US census to her death in 1886.  She is listed in the 1885 Chicago City Directory as the widow of William, and in the 1886 census as the widow of Henry.  Her husband is alternately listed as William, Henry, William Henry, or W.H. is various records.  He was always shown as a baker or confectioner.  Mary’s son, Lyman, is listed as a confectioner in the 1885 directory and candy maker in the 1886 directory.

17.   Because of a fire in the 1930s at Holy Trinity Church in Bloomington, Illinois, no early information survives for St. Mary’s Cemetery.   The records they have are from a 1985 survey done by members of the community that recorded the tombstones in the cemetery at that time.  There is a record, and an inscribed tombstone for Anne Brown, the wife of Patrick Brown; but, no other inscription is available.


Sunday, July 10, 2016

F I R E !

Fire has always been a concern for Chicago, due, in large part, to construction materials used since earliest times.  Wood was an inexpensive and readily available source.  As the city grew, brick and stone buildings became common; however, wood was still an integral part of most structures.  Even “fire-proof” buildings constructed of iron and steel, had tar paper roofs, wooden windows, and interiors containing wood partitions, wood floors, and wooden furniture.  Wood cornices and decorations were common because they were lighter and easier to work with.  By 1871, the year of the fire, many of the major buildings in the business district were constructed using this “heavier” construction; yet, they were still interspersed with wood frame structures.1  

Cook County Courthouse 1865 (see footnotes)
The city, including the central business district, was full of warehouses and stores stacked from floor to ceiling with combustibles.  Lumber yards, planning mills, and factories for making furniture, carriages and wagons produced highly flammable by-products such as shavings and sawdust.   There were seventeen wooden grain elevators in 1871.  Besides containing incendiary contents, most were four to five stories tall; impossible for fire-fighting equipment of the era to contain should a fire start or spread to one.  There were paint and varnish shops adding fumes to the list of flammables.   Coal, used in creating steam power for businesses, was stored in large yards in the city.  Housing, especially those in poorer neighborhoods, was wood construction.   Wooden fences divided properties in both business and residential areas.  Elevated wooden sidewalks provided more fuel for fires.   It seems that everything in Chicago was flammable including many streets that were “paved” with wooden blocks. 2 

Chicago did have a professional fire department and a newly renovated alarm system based on a telegraphic network of 171 alarm boxes scattered throughout the city.   However, the fire department was greatly understaffed.   Less than 200 firefighters organized into seventeen steam fire engine companies, six hose companies, four hook-and-ladder companies, and two hose elevator companies protected a city of over 330,000 people.3

Many excellent books and websites describe the fire and its aftermath.  It is not the intention to detail that information here, but, only to identify how the Brown family was directly affected by the fire.  In order to understand what happened to them, some specific information pertaining to the family and events is helpful. 

The Brown family lived in various locations in Chicago as described in the previous post.  At the time of the fire, they were living at the rear of 219 Jackson Street, located at the southwest corner of
Armory and Gas Works
Jackson and Franklin Streets4  in the South District of Chicago.5  It appears that several members of the extended Brown family and two additional families totaling over twenty individuals were living at this property.6   Jackson and Franklin Streets, was located in Conley’s Patch, just a block south from the Armory, (at Adams and Franklin).  The Armory was used as a police court and temporary prison, and was located in a high crime area.  The Chicago Gas Works at Adams and Franklin was across the street from the Armory.7  

Chicago, 1871 (Click to enlarge)
The youngest daughter of Hannah and Timothy Brown, Johanna Brown Roach, and her family were living at 63 W. Jackson Street located just a few blocks away on the west side of the South Branch between Canal and Clinton Street.  See map on the left and click to see detail.8  I am also enclosing another map, shown below right, that presents a birds-eye view of the region, and, perhaps, gives a better spatial view of the area where the Brown family lived and what the houses were like.9

The summer and fall of 1871 had been abnormally hot and dry.  Several fires were reported in Chicago during the first week of October.  The worst of these was a fire that started on Saturday
Birds-eye view of Brown residences (Click to enlarge)
night, October 7 in “The Red Flash” area10 and was by far the largest to hit Chicago before the “great” fire of the next day.  The fire started in the Lull and Holmes Planing Mill at 209 S. Canal Street near Van Buren.  The fire had gotten a good start before it was reported and quickly spread to nearby homes and businesses in front of a “brisk wind.”  More alarms were sounded.  Thousands of onlookers gathered to watch the event, congregating in nearby streets and on rooftops.   “The roof of a shed at Clinton and Jackson Streets collapsed under the weight of about a hundred and fifty spectators . . .”11   This was exactly the location where Johanna Roach was living and could have been at the same property, or very near.  Before the fire was under control at 3:30 A.M. the next day, Sunday, every working fire engine in the city was at the scene, and the fire had consumed a four block area bounded by Adams Street to the north, Van Buren Street on the south, Clinton Street on the west and the river on the east, the area shown in the orange square on the map. 

The Roach lodgings were consumed in this fire.  Logically, the Roach family would have gone to the house of Johanna’s mother at Jackson and Franklin to get away from the fire.  David Brown also states this in his letter on page six when giving information about Johanna Brown Roach.  He says, “. . . Johanna Roach was sick at this time.  Her home was burned out, apparently and they took her to the home of her Mother. . .”12  Little did they know what was to come.

The men were exhausted from fighting the Saturday fire and equipment had sustained major damage; some was destroyed.  Fires don’t respect the frailties of man, or machine.   Fire started again around 8:30 in the evening of Sunday, October 8, this time in the barn of the O’Leary family on De Koven Street between Clinton and Jefferson Streets in the southern part of the West District, about ten blocks south of the Saturday night fire.  There was supposedly an alarm sounded about 9:15 by a fire company further south on Blue Island Avenue; however, no alarm was received by the central office until 9:40.  Further delay was caused by the watchman in the courthouse tower who dismissed a possible sighting of the fire as the reflection of the embers from the Saturday night fire.13  As additional alarms came in, the firefighters were sent to erroneous addresses.  Needless to say, the fire was raging by the time the tired men could really respond to the fire.

The fire kept gaining strength devouring building after building as it marched in front of a now very strong wind from the south west blowing everything towards the city.  After three hours, it had traveled seven blocks and was near the burned out area of the Saturday night fire.  Most hoped that the previously burned area and the width of the South Branch of the river would halt the progression of the fire.  That was not to be.

Cinders had been carried across the river most of the night by the high winds; however, by 11:30, a large fire brand landed on the Parmelee building, (the Parmelee Omnibus and Stage Company), on the south east corner of Jackson and Franklin, directly across the street from the Brown residence.   The three-story Parmelee building, which covered much of the block, burned quickly.  It was the first building to burn in the South District.  The Gas Works, Armory, and Powell roofing company just a block north of the Brown residence also caught fire about the same time.  The night superintendent and assistant superintendent of the Gas Works, Thomas Ockerby and Thomas Burtis, earlier in the evening had transferred gas from the tanks at Adams Street to reservoirs on the North Side thereby preventing an explosion at that location.  Residents around the Armory were not so lucky.  The Armory was a storage area for munitions, and, about 12:45 the magazine exploded destroying the building and extending fire in the area.14      

It is hard to figure how the family managed to escape the fire. Perhaps they were part of the spectators out to see the spectacle of the fire, or, at least part of them.  Were they able to stay together as a group, or, were they split up?  A policeman, Henry
Chicago at the Randolph Street Bridge
Ulrich, in the area did try to rouse neighborhood residents and alert them to the danger.  David Brown mentions in his letter that, “my cousin, Mrs. Sarah Taylor . . . says that Mrs. Brown was burned in that fire.  How seriously I do not know, but probably it was not serious . . .”15  Cromie states that, “the ragged inhabitants of Conley’s Patch poured through the streets in a frantic rush for safety” and that they , “came swarming from their dismal homes” heading for the West Side.16  

The fire continued to burn north and east.  It reached the Courthouse by 1:00 A.M. Monday morning, October 9th completely destroying the building and its contents.  By 2:30 A.M. the fire had crossed the river to the North Division.  By 3:00 A.M., the water works were on fire.  The fire 
continued to spread into the more prosperous and predominantly residential North Division and on into the more sparsely populated areas still further north.  Finally, a cold rain started falling around 11:00 P.M. on Monday, October 9th.  Aided by the rain, the fire finally burned itself out but not before annihilating an area ¾ mile wide and four miles long, killing approximately 300 people, and leaving over 100,000 residents homeless.17  

Hannah Brown and the rest of the family survived the immediate dangers of the fire.  In talking to another Chicago researcher, people felt the effects of the fire for many years after. It continued to claim the lives of immediate survivors because of smoke inhalation and other illnesses and injuries received as a result of exposure to the fire.

In the next post, we will follow Hannah in the aftermath of the fire.     



Fassett, S.M., Lincoln lying in state, Library of Congress, available online at:  Photograph is of the funeral processing of Abraham Lincoln entering the Cook County Courthouse in 1865.  By 1870 three story additions had been added to both the east and the west side of the courthouse.  All was destroyed in the fire of October 8, 1871.  In 1858, Alexander Hesler shot eleven photographs from the roof of the Cook County Courthouse and give an excellent idea of what the city looked like at that time.  The photographs have been “stitched” together to present a panoramic view.  A link is available here: .  Place your cursor in the center of the picture and move it right or left to see the complete 360o view as if you were standing on top of the courthouse yourself.
1.       Cromie, Robert, The Great Chicago Fire, McGraw-Hill, New York, New York, 1958, pp. 14 – 21

2.       Ibid.

3.       Chicago Historical Society and Northwestern University, website of The Great Chicago Fire & The Web of Memory, available online at   When activated, an alarm was sent an alert to a central office in the courthouse.  It was then relayed to the appropriate fire station located near the fire.  There was also a watchman stationed in the courthouse tower who had a view of most of the city.

4.       Contemporary city directories show the address of 219 Jackson at the intersection of Jackson and Franklin.  Odd numbers are on the south side of the street.

5.       The Chicago River defines the area of Chicago.  Before 1900, the North Branch of the river (flowing south), and the South Branch of the river (flowing north), met to form the Chicago River (Main Stem) which flowed into Lake Michigan.  Anything north of the Chicago River and east of the North Branch was identified as North Chicago; south of the Chicago River and east of the South Branch was identified as South Chicago; west of the North and South branches was identified as the West Division.  The central business district was located in the South District just south of the Chicago River and east of the South Branch.  Note that about 1900, the river was “engineered” to reverse the flow of the Main Stem and South Branch of the river.  See for an explanation. 

6.       Chicago Census Report; and Statistical Review, embracing a Complete Directory of the City, showing the Number of Persons in Each Family.  Available online at the Newberry Library,  The 1871 Chicago City Directory lists several Brown families, (Ellen, Honora, James, Michael, and Thomas), totaling eleven individuals.  Two other families were also listed at this address – Anderson totaling seven persons, and Cheevers totaling five persons.

7.       Sheahan, James W., Chicago Illustrated, volume 11,  Armory and Gas Works, Jevene & Alimini, Chicago, 1866.  “The location of the building is in the very center of the abodes of crime, degradation and vice of every form, which, by some strange impulse, have gathered under the very walls of the tribunal ...”

8.       Charles Shober & Co., Guide Map of Chicago, Charles Shober & Co., Chicago, 1868, website of The University of Chicago Library.  Available online at:  The map shown is an enlargement of a section of the Guide Map of Chicago.  I have identified several places key to the Brown family.  The blue box in the upper portion of the map identifies the courthouse where the watchman was located in the tower.  The small green box in the center of the map is the location of the Armory.   The yellow box on the south east corner of Jackson and Franklin is the site of the newly finished Parmelee Omnibus Company which was scheduled to open on Wednesday, October 11.  The red X shows the location of Hannah Brown’s residence.  The purple Y is where Johanna Roach was living.  The large orange box identifies the extent of the Saturday night fire and the darker orange circle with a “Z” inside (ground zero) shows the location where the Sunday night fire started – the O’Leary’s barn on DeKoven Street.

9.       Ruger, A., Map of Chicago in 1868 from Schiller Street north side to 12th Street south side, Chicago Lithographing Co., available online at the Library of Congress, https://www.loc.giv/item/73693350/The image is an enlargement of a very small segment of the map.  While it is oriented differently, the same notations apply – The red oval shows where Hannah Brown was living; the purple oval shows where Johanna Roach was living; and, the green square shows the location of the Armory.  The Courthouse is the large building in the lower right corner of the image.

10.   Cromie, op. cit., p. 22.  This was “a neighborhood of lumberyards, a few cheap frame houses, and many saloons.  Among the nearby combustibles (aside from the saloons) were a paper-box factory, two lumberyards – which also contained large coal piles – and the timber depot of an express company.”

11.   Cromie, op. cit., p. 25.

12.   Brown, David, Kankakee, IL, 11 May 1943, Letter to Esther ______, Columbus, OH. P. 6.  The letter written in 1943 contains detailed information about the Brown family as known by the author at that time.

13.   Check the map.  The Saturday night fire, identified by the orange box, is directly in the line of sight from the Courthouse Tower to the fire on De Koven Street.

14.   Cromie, op. cit., p. 63.

15.   Brown, op. cit., p.3.  Sarah Taylor is the granddaughter of Hannah and Timothy Brown.  She is a daughter of Patrick Brown, the eldest son of Hannah and Timothy.

16.   Cromie, op. cit., p.63
Currier & Ives, Chicago in flames: Scene at Randolph Street Bridge, New York 1872-1874, Library of Congress.  Image available online at: .   

17.   Wikipedia, Great Chicago Fire, available online at:

R.P. Studley Co. Map showing the burnt district in Chicago: published for the benefit of the Relief Fund. [Saint Louis: R. P. Studley, 187-?] Map. Retrieved from the Library of Congress,